We’re thrilled to introduce the newest Seattle Aquarium resident, Hogan the harbor seal! Hogan arrived on Tuesday, December 8 after moving from his previous home at the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium (PDZA), where he was born on June 2, 2013.
Hogan is actually returning to his roots by coming to the Seattle Aquarium—his father is our very own Q! Here’s the backstory on that: The Seattle Aquarium and PDZA, both accredited members of the Association of Zoos & Aquariums (AZA), participate in the organization’s harbor seal Species Survival Plan (SSP). As part of the SSP, Q was transferred to PDZA in April 2012 on a breeding loan. While there, he sired two pups with two different females: Shila, Hogan’s mother, and Qilak, who gave birth to a pup named Saya.
At two and a half years old, Hogan is gray with light gray spots. His weight varies seasonally, but he’s still growing and currently weighs 121 pounds. Along with Q and Barney, he’ll enjoy a diet composed of a variety of fish including herring, capelin, mackerel and squid. Like his weight, his diet will fluctuate seasonally and range between six and 15 pounds of food per day. He was named after Holly Hogan Reed, a beloved veterinarian at PDZA who passed away in 2012.
Come say hello to Hogan during your next visit to the Seattle Aquarium! And read our harbor seal fact sheet for more information about these charismatic animals.
Do you know the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm—or even what these terms mean? They both refer to the ways that animals stay warm. When the weather outside is frightful, a blog post about thermoregulation is so delightful! Keep reading to find out which animals need help from the environment to stay warm (ectotherms), and which animals produce their own heat (endotherms).
For these animals, heat comes from outside (ecto-) their bodies—their environment provides their warmth. That means they require less food, and are consequently able to inhabit places that would be off-limits to endotherms. However, their activity level is limited by the surrounding conditions. If it gets too cold, they simply can’t move.
Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni)
Like most fish, Banggai cardinalfish are ectotherms. Because of this, these fish appear less hungry during winter months.
Widehand hermit crabs (Elassochirus tenuimanus)
Hermit crabs, along with all invertebrates, are ectotherms. Since invertebrates account for more than 95 percent of animal species, that means that most animals are ectotherms
Tripod fish (Family Ipnopidae)
These fish live in the abyssal zone, where conditions are so stable that their body temperatures don’t change.
These animals produce their own heat inside (endo-) their bodies. Creating that warmth speeds up their body processes: muscles, neurons and all of their processes work faster. That also means they require a lot of food—between five and 20 times more food than an ectotherm of the same size!
Sea otters (Enhydra lutris)
These marine mammals have to eat roughly 25 percent of their body weight per day to keep their bodies warm.
Anna’s hummingbirds (Calypte anna)
These high-energy birds have needs that can’t be met at night when they’re at rest. The solution? Torpor, a state of deep sleep and lowered metabolism. Some animals extend torpor over the whole winter; this is called hibernation.
Opahs (Lampris guttatus)
These fish generate heat mainly by constantly flapping their pectoral fins, which helps their bodies stay warmer than the water even when they dive over 1,500 feet below the surface. Opahs have been sighted in Washington waters twice since 1935.
Just in time for Halloween, here’s a peek at some of the creepy creatures on exhibit at the Seattle Aquarium. Get to know them here, then come check them out in person during your next visit!
Creeping pedal sea cucumber, Psolus chitonoides
This scaly echinoderm can be found creeping along in our Puget Sound Fish and octopus exhibits. It uses its oral tentacles to ensnare detritus floating in the water; however the tentacles themselves contain a toxin to deter any potential predators of the cucumber itself.
Sablefish, Anopoploma fimbria
Something about those beady eyes makes this fish look a little creepy! But many find it mightily tasty too—and may know it by its other common names: butterfish and black cod.
Red brotula, Brosmophycis marginata
This deceptive fish is longer than it appears and uses slime to protect itself from predators. Although unknown to many visitors, it’s been living in our Puget Sound Fish exhibit for over 10 years. A recent den rearrangement makes its hiding place slightly more visible.
Spotted ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei
This cartilaginous fish is a marine-world Frankenstein, appearing to have the head of a rabbit, the body of a fish and the tail of a rat. There are dozens of species of ratfish in the Order Chimaera. In Greek mythology, the Chimera was a monster with the head of a lion, body of a goat and tail of a serpent. Other names for ratfish include ghost shark and spookfish. Learn more about them here!
Devil scorpionfish, Scorpaenopsis diabolus
This motionless, amazingly well-camouflaged fish could easily sneak up and scare you. With venomous spines, a downturned mouth and those eyes—there’s just something about them!
With the celebration of ghosts, goblins and things that go bump in the night nearly here, there’s no better time to talk about poisonous and venomous critters at the Seattle Aquarium. Do you know the difference between poison and venom? Most people associate venom with snakes, which provides a good hint about the correct answer to our question: venom is always delivered via a wound (a sting or a bite, for example), while poison is ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
Both poison and venom contain both contain toxins, which sea creatures use to catch prey and/or defend themselves. Toxins are molecules, often in a cocktail of combinations that may affect the nervous system (neurotoxins), overstimulate the immune system (allergens) or even eat away at the flesh (proteolytic toxins)!
Do you know what animals at the Seattle Aquarium are poisonous and which are venomous? Test your knowledge below!
Venomous. A rockfish’s dorsal, pelvic and anal spines all contain a mild venom.
Gotcha! Local sea urchins, like those on exhibit at the Aquarium, have long, sharp spines but don’t produce toxins. Some tropical species of sea urchins are venomous, however.
Poisonous. If you ate cabezon eggs, although we can’t imagine why you’d want to, you could experience nausea, diarrhea or—at the extreme end—go into a coma. It’s thought that the poison in these eggs may be an adaptation to provide protection after they’re laid, typically in shallow water.
Venomous—but not poisonous, so this fish is actually recommended for human consumption in many areas.
Venomous. An octopus bites with its beak, then injects venom into the wound via its saliva.
Poisonous. Tetrodotoxin is what makes the puffer fish poisonous—it’s the same toxin found in blue-ringed octopuses, which are venomous (one of the marine world’s most venomous animals, in fact, and NOT on display at the Seattle Aquarium!).
Venomous. Moon jellies, like those found in the Ring of Life exhibit at the Seattle Aquarium, deliver a mild sting to humans that results in little to no reaction.
Gotcha again! Moray eels can deliver a very painful bite but aren’t venomous.
Get to know more about these animals on your next visit to the Seattle Aquarium!
In late 2013, millions of sea stars began dying along the entire west coast of North America and in Puget Sound—even along the Seattle waterfront, directly under the Aquarium’s pier. The condition, soon labeled sea star wasting disease (SSWD), caused the animals to waste away, giving the impression of “melting.” Below, Seattle Aquarium staff veterinarian Dr. Lesanna Lahner shares an update on the collaborative effort to understand the disease.
Sea star wasting disease continues to be a problem for sea stars along the west coast of North America. Since it was first observed two years ago, many strides have been made in understanding the disease including the isolation of a virus, termed sea star-associated densovirus SSaDV, that may be associated with it. More work is being done to understand the role this virus might play in the disease process and the Seattle Aquarium is collaborating with Dr. Ian Hewson from Cornell on this topic.
Other research directed at better understanding SSWD has been done recently at the Seattle Aquarium, with generous support from The Boeing Company. This past summer, three interns worked with me on a variety of sea-star-related projects including 1) the effects of ocean acidification conditions on the general health of sea stars and on SSWD progression; 2) better understanding the coelomic fluid of healthy and diseased sea stars; and 3) radiographic evaluations of healthy and SSWD-affected stars. Evaluating coelomic fluid is like doing blood work on a mammal. It tells us a lot about what is going on inside the sea star on a physiologic level. The radiographic studies included fascinating diagnostics like plain film radiographs (x-rays), computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both healthy and diseased sea stars. These radiographic studies gave us new insight into what’s normal for sea stars and what’s happening in live stars affected with sea star wasting disease. These valuable coelomic fluid and radiographic studies were made possible due to generous support from collaborators including Dr. Nicole Stacy at The University of Florida School of Veterinary Medicine and Dr. Tori McKlveen at the VCA Specialty Clinic of Seattle.
The Seattle Aquarium recently co-funded a dive survey of the San Juan Islands with the SeaDoc Society and Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) to look at the population impacts of SSWD. Over 100 dives were done as part of this survey by highly trained scientific divers. Before SSWD, between 20 and 30 sunflower sea stars would be seen on a single dive. Unfortunately, the findings were quite grim and not a single sunflower sea star could be found. Other areas are reporting very low numbers of sea stars and increasing numbers of urchins. The recruitment of young sea stars in most regions has been reported as low by collaborators.
The Seattle Aquarium continues to collaborate with many other institutions on SSWD research and is dedicated to understanding SSWD for the conservation of our marine environment. We will be hosting an international workshop in January of 2016 of sea star disease researchers to identify priorities for SSWD research moving forward. Stay tuned for more updates!
For more information, read our previous SSWD blog posts.